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More on Consonants/Vowels in the Recipes

September 26, 2010 Leave a comment

Here are some results from the Recipes folios for the verbose homophonic cipher idea proposed earlier.

Using the Recipes Folios, we find
1085 lines of VMs words
3150 different words on those lines

Looking for word sequences within a line that fit the pattern XYYZ (note that X=Y as well as X=Z is allowed):

50 XYYZ sequences
102 different words

(This is somewhat disappointing, as 102 is a small fraction of the total vocabulary.)

Two of the 50 sequences are of the form YYYZ or XYYY (“2oy 2coe 2coe 2coe” and “2coe 2coe 2coe 4oh1c89“) and so I remove “2coe” from further consideration as being ambiguously a vowel or a consonant or something else such as a number digit. This involves removing it wherever it appears in any of the 50 sequences.

Next I collect a list of all the different Y words (there are 31), and for each, a list of the X and Z words it appears with.

The hypothesis is that for each sequence, X and Z must code for vowels and Y for a consonant, or vice versa. (This holds for Latin, for example.)

At this point, the words can be categorised into two sets: Category 1 and Category 2. A Cat1 word cannot appear in the Cat2 list, and vice versa. The categorisation is done by first taking the the initial Y word, assigning it to Cat1, and assigning its XZ words to Cat2:

Y=4ohii89 (Cat1)    X/Z=4oh29 1sk9 e1c89 4ohco 82coe 1c9 4ohcc89 4okc9 (Cat2)

The next Y word is then examined:

Y=4ohii9 X/Z=4okc9 okc8(

Since 4okc9 has already been categorised as Cat2 in the first step, it follows that 4ohii9 is Cat1, and okc8( is Cat2.

This procedure continues for several iterations over all the Y and X/Z words until all have either been allocated to Cat1 or Cat2 or cannot be allocated to either (16 words). One word cannot be unambiguously assigned: 4ohcc9

The contents of the two categories are:

Category 1 (28 words)
4ohii89 oe 1oe 4ohcc9 4ohii9 2cae 4ohc9 kii9 1cae okc8aiN 4okc8( 1ii9 1c8ae 1ae yae 4oh89 8ae 1c8 4okay ohaiN e 1c89kcahaiN ohciiN kcc89 hco8( hae okaiiN okay

Category 2 (18 words)
4oh29 1sk9 e1c89 4ohco 82coe 1c9 4ohcc89 4okc9 okae ohii89 4oh1c9 1c89 ohcokcc9 4o okc8( 1oy ay 4okaiN

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How about a “Verbose Homophonic cipher”?

September 24, 2010 7 comments

I’ve had a bit of hiatus from the VMs, but it’s always popping up in my mind and niggling me, even when I haven’t got time to spend on it. The latest niggle was the idea that the VMs scribe used a set of simple tables that showed how to convert plaintext letters into codes. So, in an example table, letter “A” is written “4oh”, letter “B” is written “8am” and so on. Also, spaces in the plaintext have their own code. Veteran VMs researcher Philip Neal informed me that this is called a “verbose homophonic cipher”.

Elaborating on the idea:  the scribe uses one of the set of tables for each folio s/he is writing. To encipher the plaintext onto the folio, it’s simply a matter of writing down the VMs “word”  for each letter in the plaintext word. If there is more space on the line for the next plaintext word, the scribe writes down the code for space, and then the codes for the letters in the next word. Long spaces are written by writing the code for space more than once … The next line is used for the next word, and so on.

On the next folio, a different table may be used.

It’s hard to imagine the justification for such a scheme, but it does appear (at least initially) to fit some of the features of the VMs script (especially the repeating VMs words often seen).

I made a quick test that looks at VMs word frequencies on a single folio (in the Recipes section, which has the densest text). These showed a word frequency distribution that looks similar to the letter frequency distribution in Latin, apart from the most frequently occurring word (which is much more frequent) and which it is suggested would code for a space in the cipher.

However, on a typical folio, there are usually many more VMs words than there are plaintext letters. So the scheme has to be extended to allow the scribe a choice between several different VMs words to encode a single letter. Each table must have a set of words appearing in each plaintext letter column. Something like this:

Plaintext (space) a b
VMs words 8am ay okoe 4ohoe 2ay 1coe faiis 4ay oka

If this is indeed the scheme, one would expect to see patterns in the VMs word sequences that match patterns seen in the letter sequences of e.g. Latin words. Also, as Philip Neal pointed out, patterns like “word1 word2 word2 word1” would indicate a plaintext letter sequence of either “vowel consonant consonant vowel” or vice versa.

Looking through the whole of the VMs for sequence patterns (on the same line of text), I found the following:

  • There are no 4 word sequences that repeat at all
  • There are only four 3 word sequences that repeat, and each only twice
  • There are no sequences at all of the form “xyyx”

(all of which I find rather surprising, and thought provoking).

So it looks like this hypothesis is dead in the water, and can be ticked off that long list of “things it might have been but in fact don’t fit”!

(It turns out that Elmar Vogt has been working on a related, but more sophisticated, idea which he describes on his blog and is called a “Stroke Theory”.)