Archive for the ‘oy’ Category

How was the Voynich Manuscript text written?

August 23, 2012 7 comments

I’ve spent many happy hours poring over the text, and am convinced that it is not as “simple” as it appears (i.e. the “words” are not words at all). Here are some conjectures:

  1. The lines look like they are written left to right i.e. the glyphs were written down from left to right, but were not.
  2. The scribe started with the drawing and started writing glyphs at various positions on the page.
  3. The method used for choosing each glyph and for deciding its position involved a mechanical apparatus, perhaps a set of co-rotating cipher wheels that were used to convert each character in the Latin plaintext into a VMs glyph and page position
  4. The apparatus is set to a new starting position for each folio/page (so e.g. Bettony labels on the three folios the plant appears on are different)
  5.  The density of ink is a clue to the order in which the glyphs were written (nib/quill freshly dipped and full of ink, or almost dry)
  6. At some point the scribe finishes writing the needed glyphs, and then fills out the spaces with pseudo-random words.
  7. There is no punctuation because what is seen are not words. What is seen makes no grammatical sense because the glyphs are not ordered and positioned linearly across the page.
  8. Perhaps the secret to unwinding the cipher is in the labels. The labels on one page are constrained to have been produced by the same initial position of the cipher apparatus, and they must come from the plaintext label.

There are so many clues as to what is going on, yet putting them all together is hugely challenging

For example, Jim Reeds suggested years ago that the order in which the text had been written on the sunflower page, f33v:


was first the text to the left of the left stalk, second the text in between the stalks, and finally the text to the right of the last stalk. This is compelling, since the ink density looks different, and the lines don’t line up well across the stalks. It becomes clearer if you saturate the image:

f33v Saturated

And in that image, what jumps out are the glyphs that are darker than the others. Those can be seen more clearly in black/white:

f33v monochrome drop

where the “o”, “y”, “8”, “e” stick out like sore thumbs. Most of those are in the left section, some in the middle, and fewer in the right. Why are these glyphs bolder, why are they inked more heavily? Were these the glyphs initially placed on the page, and contain the real information, and the rest, unimportant and pseudo-random, were all added later to make the text look “normal”?

Categories: 8, ay, Characters, e, f33v, Features, Jim Reeds, Latin, o, oy, Theories, Writing, y Tags: , ,

Odd Distributions of “oy” and “ay”

August 23, 2012 6 comments
A few weeks ago I posted some images showing the positions of the 
gallows characters on each of the VMs folios.
(The blog post is here is you missed it: )

With a couple of small changes to the code, I have generated a set of 
images showing the positions of the "oy" and "ay" glyphs on each of the 
folios. (I believe the oy and ay are transcribed in EVA as ol and or, 
not sure.) This was prompted by the observations that
a) these glyph pairs often occur many times on a folio,
b) on some folios they don't appear at all
c) on some other folios only "ay" appears, on others only "oy"
d) often the "oy" glyphs appear to the left of each line, and the "ay" 
to the right, and sometimes vice-versa.

I wanted to link to a few example images from the set. The colour code 
is "oy" yellow and "ay" pink, with the coloured square indicating the 
position of the "o" or "a", a grey square indicating another glyph, and 
a black square a space.

1)  Examples of "oy"s at the left, and "ay"s at the right:

2) Example of the opposite: "ay"s at the left, "oy"s at the right:

3) Example of only "oy" on the folio:

4) Example of only "ay" on the folio:

5) Example of numerous "oy"s to only one "ay":

6) Example of an even mixture of both types, across the lines:

What might be going on here? Nick Pelling commented on my blog that GC, 
while working on the Voyn_101 transcription, got the impression that the 
change from dominant "oy" to dominant "ay" was a vocabulary change in 
the text (at least, that's what I understood from Nick's comment).

I'd welcome comments on this. Also, if you would like me to generate 
images for your favourite glyph's distribution, it's a trivial process - 
just let me know
Categories: ay, Glen Caston, Nick Pelling, oy, oy Tags: