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Alfonso X’s Lapidario: Stones, Stars and Colours

October 13, 2016 6 comments

I’ve been down a bit of rabbit hole over the last couple of days which others may have already been down. I was looking once more at the Zodiac folios, in particular Taurus. The Taurus Light and Dark folios are both marked “may” in, as often remarked, a later hand. There are 15 figures in each Taurus folio, for a total of 30. However, as we well know, May has 31 days, so the figures probably don’t represent days. I thus went in search of 30-way splits of Zodiac signs ….

Alfonso X’s Lapidario

Looking at this old Spanish illustrated manuscript:

“Tratados de Alfonso X sobre astrología y sobre las propiedades de las piedras”

which is a treatise on astrology and the importance of stones/gems etc., we can see a circular Taurus diagram with 30 divisions.

lapidario_taurus_30

Each of these divisions is associated with a stone, of a noted colour, and one or a few stars in a constellation. There is a lengthy description of each division, its stone, its stars, the various ailments the stone cures, when the stone should be used, et cetera. There is a Spanish transcription of the text here, which I found very useful (combined with Google Translate):

Alfonso X Lapidario

Since a plausible language match to the month spellings as written in the Zodiac folios is Occitan which at one point covered part of Spain (please correct me on this, as I’m not sure), there seems to be a compelling regional match here, but I can’t quite figure it out.

From what I’ve read, Alfonso X assembled a team of scholars from all world regions, who worked on documents on a variety of topics. This website says of the Lapidario: “The Lapidario is a thirteenth century Castilian translation sponsored by King Alfonso X el Sabio, the Learned. The translation was done from an Arabic text which in turn is said to have been translated by the mysterious Abolays from an ancient text in the “Chaldean language”

Matching Stone Colours

Anyway, my first approach was to try to match the colours of the headgear or tunics of the clothed figures in the Taurus Light folio to the colours of the first and second fifteen stones mentioned in the Lapidario. It’s a little tricky, because although the stones are numbered, we don’t know which is figure 1 in the Taurus Light folio, and whether the inner ring precedes the outer. Even so, the patterns of colours in the stones sequence might reveal a match. I drew a blank.

Matching Stones with Voynich Star Labels

My second approach was to try to match the names of the stones with the labels on the figures, to see if there was some correlation between the label length, or its initial glyph, with the stones’ names. Very tricky.

Some of the stones that appear in the Taurus set of 30 also appear in other Zodiac signs in the Lapidario. For example, the ninth stone in Taurus is “esmeri(l)” (Latin), and esmeril is also the third stone of Libra, and the second stone of Aquarius.

This leads to the obvious question: is there a Figure in the both the Voynich Taurus and Libra roundels (Aquarius is missing) that shares the same label? If so, might that label be “esmeril”? And, are there other stones that appear in more than one sign which might be matched to duplicate stones in the Lapidario?

(As an aside, regarding the stones and colours, I was struck by the third stone of Taurus, called “camorica”, which is scarlet in colour and associated with the Pleiades.)

Another promising avenue is to compare the shapes and orientations of the stars in the constellations as they appear in the VM with how they appear in the Lapidario. Since the Pleiades are mentioned in the Lapidario, are they illustrated there, and does its illustration of the cluster match the apparent drawing of it in the VM (which differs in detail from its actual appearance in the night sky)? I need to investigate further, but my suspicion is that others have already been down this path 🙂

Chaldean Stones

I extracted the Chaldean stone names for each Zodiac sign, from the transcription I linked to above. The stones for Aries are shown below, as an example. (The whole set is available if anyone wants it.)

The first 12 sections in the Lapidario list the 30 stones for each zodiac sign, but a few signs appear to be truncated: Leo has only one stone, Pisces only has two stones, and Aquarius only 28.

There follow more sections, again one for each sign, but these each have only three stones. I’m not clear what they represent. I posted about all this at Voynich Ninja, and MarcoP was able to explain. Others also chimed in with some useful comments. The discussion is here.

Anyway, following those sections are several more that cover the stones of Saturn (4 stones), Jupiter (4 stones), Mars (4 stones), Venus (24 stones), Sun (9 stones) and Mercury (17 stones).

Here is an extract of the list I extracted for all the Zodiac stones: this is for Aries.

ARIES
1 magnitad
2 zurudica
3 gagatiz
4 miliztiz
5 centiz
6 movedor
7 goliztiz
8 telliminuz
9 milititaz
10 huye de la leche
11 alj?far
12 anetatiz
13 beruth
14 piedra de cinc
15 tira el oro
16 chupa la sangre
17 parece en la mar cuando sube Marte
18 tira el vidrio
19 annora
20 yzf
21 cuminon
22 astarnuz
23 belyniz
24 gaciuz
25 azufaratiz
26 abietityz
27 lubi
28 ceraquiz
29 berlimaz
30 annoxatir

In total I count 301 stones in the Lapidario’s Zodiac section, of which 291 are unique to a sign. The remainder appear more than once as follows:

bezaar [(9, 'G\x83MINIS'), (11, 'G\x83MINIS')]
azarnech [(12, 'SAGITARIO'), (13, 'SAGITARIO')]
pez [(7, 'LIBRA'), (30, 'LIBRA')]
plomo [(18, 'VIRGO'), (13, 'CANCRO')]
calcant [(10, 'VIRGO'), (11, 'VIRGO')]
aliaza [(23, 'TAURO'), (29, 'TAURO')]
parece en la mar [(15, 'SAGITARIO'), (15, 'TAURO'), (17, 'G\x83MINIS'), (17, 'ACUARIO')]
de la serpiente [(12, 'LIBRA'), (7, 'G\x83MINIS')]

e.g. “bezaar” is the 9th and the 11th stone in Gemini, “de la sepiente” is the 12th stone in Libra and the 7th in Gemini.

Turning to the Voynich Zodiac, I count 298 unique star labels of which 269 are unique to a sign. The labels that appear more than once are:

otal dar ['71r', '70v2'] Aries (Light) , Pisces , 
otal ['72r2', '73r'] Gemini , Scorpio , 
okeey ary ['72r1', '72r2'] Taurus (Dark) , Gemini , 
okal ['73v', '72r2', '72r2'] Sagittarius , Gemini , Gemini , 
okeos ['73v', '73r', '73r'] Sagittarius , Scorpio , Scorpio , 
okeoly ['70v2', '72v1'] Pisces , Libra , 
otaly ['70v2', '72v3', '73r'] Pisces , Leo , Scorpio , 
okaram ['70v2', '72r2'] Pisces , Gemini , 
okoly ['70v1', '72v3'] Aries (Dark) , Leo , 
okalar ['72r3', '72r2'] Cancer , Gemini , 
okary ['72v3', '73r'] Leo , Scorpio , 
okam ['72r2', '72v3'] Gemini , Leo , 
okeody ['73v', '73v', '73r', '72v2'] Sagittarius , Sagittarius , Scorpio , Virgo , 
ykey ['73v', '73v'] Sagittarius , Sagittarius , 
okaly ['70v2', '72r2', '72r2', '72v3'] Pisces , Gemini , Gemini , Leo , 
okaldy ['72r2', '72v3'] Gemini , Leo , 
otaraldy ['72r1', '72r2'] Taurus (Dark) , Gemini , 
otoly ['72v3', '73r'] Leo , Scorpio , 
oky ['73v', '72v3', '73r'] Sagittarius , Leo , Scorpio , 
oteody ['73v', '73v'] Sagittarius , Sagittarius , 
okedy ['72v1', '73r'] Libra , Scorpio ,

e.g. “otal dar” appears as a label on both the Aries(Light) and Pisces zodiac chart.

If the Voynich Zodiac charts are indeed showing stones (and the figure/star labels are their names), then there should be good matches between the two lists above.

One potential match is:

azarnech [(12, 'SAGITARIO'), (13, 'SAGITARIO')] 
ykey ['73v', '73v'] Sagittarius , Sagittarius ,

However, the two labels “ykey” on f73v are not adjacent, which they should be if they are stones 12 and 13.

Another:

azarnech [(12, 'SAGITARIO'), (13, 'SAGITARIO')] 
oteody ['73v', '73v'] Sagittarius , Sagittarius ,

in this case, the two labels “oteody” on f73v are adjacent to one another, but the figures/stars they label are in the group of four at the top of the folio: it’s a stretch to think their locations are 12th and 13th.

To be continued ….

 

Are the Glyphs placed in specific folio locations?

June 6, 2016 15 comments

Based on a lot of circumstantial evidence related to the weirdness of the Voynich text (such as the odd repeating words, the curious faintness and boldness of some glyphs, and the sometimes curious positioning of text words and lines), it appears that the folios were perhaps not written Left to Right (or Right to Left) and Top to Bottom.

Instead, suppose the scribe started each folio with a prescription: for example “put an h-Gallows at the top left, then put a c in the middle of the folio, then a 9 at the end of the last line”, and so on. This would be sort of like filling out the answers to a bizarre crossword puzzle.

If there was such a prescription, might it explain some of the Voynich text features?

In the following selected charts I’m showing a virtual folio from the Recipes section. Each chart has lines and columns. Line 1 position 1 is the top left of the folio. Let’s look at the chart folio for Glyph “o”:

Recipes_o

Each disc indicates that the “o” appears at least twice in that location in the Recipes. The size of the disc indicates how many times it appears there: the bigger the disc, the more times it appeared. The random appearance of the chart suggests that “o” is not placed on the page in any particular pattern.

Let’s now look at the “s” glyph:

Recipes_s

Here it is clear that this glyph vastly prefers the first column, but not the first line. It is infrequently found elsewhere on the folio. In contrast, take a look at the rare glyphs (I just call them “?”):

Recipes_?

These abhor the early columns, and love the ends of the lines. They also seem to prefer the ends of the first lines (notice a little cluster there). Perhaps they hate the “s” glyphs…

The “4” glyph:

Recipes_4

The gap after the first column is explained by how “4” only appears at the start of a word.

Here are some more glyphs:

Recipes_y

Recipes_1Recipes_2Recipes_8Recipes_9

No conclusions here, as usual!

Addendum: the distribution for “c”:

Recipes_c

 

 

How was the Voynich Manuscript text written?

August 23, 2012 7 comments

I’ve spent many happy hours poring over the text, and am convinced that it is not as “simple” as it appears (i.e. the “words” are not words at all). Here are some conjectures:

  1. The lines look like they are written left to right i.e. the glyphs were written down from left to right, but were not.
  2. The scribe started with the drawing and started writing glyphs at various positions on the page.
  3. The method used for choosing each glyph and for deciding its position involved a mechanical apparatus, perhaps a set of co-rotating cipher wheels that were used to convert each character in the Latin plaintext into a VMs glyph and page position
  4. The apparatus is set to a new starting position for each folio/page (so e.g. Bettony labels on the three folios the plant appears on are different)
  5.  The density of ink is a clue to the order in which the glyphs were written (nib/quill freshly dipped and full of ink, or almost dry)
  6. At some point the scribe finishes writing the needed glyphs, and then fills out the spaces with pseudo-random words.
  7. There is no punctuation because what is seen are not words. What is seen makes no grammatical sense because the glyphs are not ordered and positioned linearly across the page.
  8. Perhaps the secret to unwinding the cipher is in the labels. The labels on one page are constrained to have been produced by the same initial position of the cipher apparatus, and they must come from the plaintext label.

There are so many clues as to what is going on, yet putting them all together is hugely challenging

For example, Jim Reeds suggested years ago that the order in which the text had been written on the sunflower page, f33v:

f33v

was first the text to the left of the left stalk, second the text in between the stalks, and finally the text to the right of the last stalk. This is compelling, since the ink density looks different, and the lines don’t line up well across the stalks. It becomes clearer if you saturate the image:

f33v Saturated

And in that image, what jumps out are the glyphs that are darker than the others. Those can be seen more clearly in black/white:

f33v monochrome drop

where the “o”, “y”, “8”, “e” stick out like sore thumbs. Most of those are in the left section, some in the middle, and fewer in the right. Why are these glyphs bolder, why are they inked more heavily? Were these the glyphs initially placed on the page, and contain the real information, and the rest, unimportant and pseudo-random, were all added later to make the text look “normal”?

Categories: 8, ay, Characters, e, f33v, Features, Jim Reeds, Latin, o, oy, Theories, Writing, y Tags: , ,

Copy and Conversion Errors

May 23, 2012 3 comments

Here is a piece of Greek from the Vienna Dioscurides.

Greek from the Vienna Dioscurides

Take the second line of text: we can make a simple substitution cipher to convert the Greek characters to Voynich glyphs:

One line glyph conversion

Now suppose there is a second step, where the Voynich glyphs are re-arranged into “words” according to some rules, and are then written into the manuscript.

So where am I going with this? Depending on how easily the original Greek characters are read (e.g. some lines are faint), and whether the characters are recognised correctly, would change the choice of which Voynich glyph to use. If a very old manuscript was being enciphered, this would probably be the case. Besides which, the mapping between a Greek character and a Voynich glyph might change depending on e.g. a table of equivalent characters/glyphs, or a choice of substitution cipher.

Thus if a) the original text is in a language unfamiliar to the scribe, and/or b) the original text is indistinct or otherwise hard to read, then the process of converting it to ciphertext causes errors. The same Greek letters might end up being enciphered differently depending on their readability.

Categories: Greek, Writing

An abjad result from the Genetic Algorithm

June 17, 2011 3 comments

Here is one of the GA results. This is an attempt at deciphering the text on f9v (the Viola plant). The VMs words on that folio are:

"fo1oy","ogoyo89","og9","2oy","4og19j1o","4ofoe","2oe",
"81oy","1oe","1oy","89","ok9","89",
"9hc9","1oy","oh9","occcs",
"9kc9","k19","okoe","ok9","koe89",
"g1oy","9j1cc9","4okoy","9j19","kc","ay","1k9",
"o8oe","1o9","h2co89","1o89","ok19","9ha",
"4o","1oe","1oe","okae","8oy",
"4oh1o","yoh98","8ae9",
"19","kay","19k9","8ay9","9koe89",
"ok9","h1oe","1oe","19","h9k9",
"91oy","12ok9","1oy"

These are not all the words on the folio: I have removed those that contain unusual or problematic glyphs (e.g. the “m”).

The GA comes up with the following VMs->Latin character mapping:

Voynich: o    9    1    k    y    8    e    c    h    a    4    g    2    j    f    s

Plain:   r    s    d    p    m    b    t    n    f    l        q    c    x    v    g

And here are the deciphered words. On each line you have the VMs word, the Latin consonants, then the possible Latin or English words in the dictionary that match the abjad.

fo1oy = vrdrm =  virdiarium viridarium viridiarium
ogoyo89 = rqrmrbs =  ?
og9 = rqs =  requies arquus
2oy = crm =  carum coram curam corium cremo cyrum curiam acerum acorum acroama acrum aecoreum careum cereum cerium ceroma coarmi coarmo crami cremii cremi croma cromae curium cream
4og19j1o = rqdsxdr =  ?
4ofoe = rvrt =  reverti reverto iuraverat
2oe = crt =  certa certe certo creta curatio curto creat coarto create cartae caret acerata careota careotae cariota cariotae carota carotae carta carti caryitae caryota caryotae ceratia ceratiae ceratii cerati cerata ceroti certi coertio coryti cratio creatio creati creata cretae cretea cretio crita critae croto curate curata curiatia curiata curito curta ocreata court courte curt cart
81oy = bdrm =  obdormio
1oe = drt =  audierat deerat oderit odorati aderat auderet durat diruat daret deaurata adaeratio adoratio deartuo deorata deratio diratio dirutio duratio duritia duritiae duritiei odoratio odorata darte dirty
1oy = drm =  audieram darem dierum dormio oderam odorem iudeorum deorum darium adoreum adorium dearmo diarium dirimo diremi dirum dormeo drama dromo durum edormio edurum odorum dram
89 = bs =  abs bis bos iubeas iubes basio uobis abusi ibis abies absi abusio baes bas basi bes bios bus ibos obesa obsuo obsui base abuse bees boys busy bays
ok9 = rps =  repsi rapis aeripes euripus reapse reposui rupes rupis ropes
89 = bs =  abs bis bos iubeas iubes basio uobis abusi ibis abies absi abusio baes bas basi bes bios bus ibos obesa obsuo obsui base abuse bees boys busy bays
9hc9 = sfns =  sifonis
1oy = drm =  audieram darem dierum dormio oderam odorem iudeorum deorum darium adoreum adorium dearmo diarium dirimo diremi dirum dormeo drama dromo durum edormio edurum odorum dram
oh9 = rfs =  rufus refuse
occcs = rnnng =  running runninge
9kc9 = spns =  sapiens spinas sponsi sponsa supinis spensa spinis yspanos sapineus sapinus saponis siponis sopionis spensae spineus spinosa spinus spons sponsae sponsio sponso supinus
k19 = pds =  pedes pedis apodis pods
okoe = rprt =  reperiet reparat eriperet reperta reperit reparatio reperti reporto reporte report
ok9 = rps =  repsi rapis aeripes euripus reapse reposui rupes rupis ropes
koe89 = prtbs =  partibus portabis parietibus
g1oy = qdrm =  quadrum quadrima
9j1cc9 = sxdnns =  ?
4okoy = rprm =  reprimi reprimo
9j19 = sxds =  ?
kc = pn =  opinio opino paene pene poena pono punio puny upon pane pena pone apiana apianae apina apinae paean paeon paeonia penae peni pinea pini poenae poenio open pen paine pain payne pyany pin pine pan peny peony
ay = lm =  aliam alium lama lamia lima limo olim almi oleum alme alma aulam alum aulaeum elimo ilum lamae lamiae lema limae limi ulmea ulmi elm
1k9 = dps =  dapes daps adeps adipis adipeus adips adipsi adposui dapis deposui depso depsui diapasi
o8oe = rbrt =  arboreti robert
1o9 = drs =  aderas derisui dorso durus odores duros dirus edurus odorus edrus durius diris duris derisio dares adoris adoreus adoriosa adrasi adrisi adrisio adrosi adursi derasi derisi derisa derosi derosa diarius dirasi dorsi odoris deirous dooers doores dryes dries drousie dyers
h2co89 = fcnrbs =  facinoribus
1o89 = drbs =  derbiosa
ok19 = rpds =  rapidus
9ha = sfl =  useful safly safely
4o = r =  aer ara aro aurae aure aurea auro ero eruo ira irae ire iuro or ore ori oro re rea rei rui ruo aera aerio ora iura aura era r uero uaria area auri iure iuri ere aeer aerae aerea aerei aeria aero arae areae areo arui aria ariae ari aureae aurei eiero eare erae erui eri euro euroa euri iro orae reae uro uri rai are oure yeare your our youre ear rue year yeer air rye ar
1oe = drt =  audierat deerat oderit odorati aderat auderet durat diruat daret deaurata adaeratio adoratio deartuo deorata deratio diratio dirutio duratio duritia duritiae duritiei odoratio odorata darte dirty
1oe = drt =  audierat deerat oderit odorati aderat auderet durat diruat daret deaurata adaeratio adoratio deartuo deorata deratio diratio dirutio duratio duritia duritiae duritiei odoratio odorata darte dirty
okae = rplt =  repleuit repleta repleat
8oy = brm =  baioarium barim baioariam brume bireme boarium boreum borium bromi bruma brumae eboreum ebrium ebureum obarmo broom
4oh1o = rfdr =  ?
yoh98 = mrfsb =  ?
8ae9 = blts =  oblitus balatus balteus ablatis ablutus abolitus ablatus belatus beluatus bliteus boletus bolites oblatus blites
19 = ds =  ades audias audis das deos deus dies duos odiosa dis adso iudeis ydus adesa adsuo adsui aedes aedis aedus dasea daseae dasia dasiae des desuo desui diis dius dos duis edius edus idos odiose udus dayes daies odyous dose ads daisie
kay = plm =  palam palma pluma pulmo puleium epulum pilum palmo apuliam palium apalum palmae palmea palmi palum paulum pileum plumae plumea plum polium polum palm
19k9 = dsps =  dasypus deseps disposui despise
8ay9 = blms =  bulimos bulimosa bulimus balms
9koe89 = sprtbs =  spiritibus
ok9 = rps =  repsi rapis aeripes euripus reapse reposui rupes rupis ropes
h1oe = fdrt =  foederata foederati
1oe = drt =  audierat deerat oderit odorati aderat auderet durat diruat daret deaurata adaeratio adoratio deartuo deorata deratio diratio dirutio duratio duritia duritiae duritiei odoratio odorata darte dirty
19 = ds =  ades audias audis das deos deus dies duos odiosa dis adso iudeis ydus adesa adsuo adsui aedes aedis aedus dasea daseae dasia dasiae des desuo desui diis dius dos duis edius edus idos odiose udus dayes daies odyous dose ads daisie
h9k9 = fsps =  ?
91oy = sdrm =  siderum sidereum sudarium
12ok9 = dcrps =  decerpsi decarpsi
1oy = drm =  audieram darem dierum dormio oderam odorem iudeorum deorum darium adoreum adorium dearmo diarium dirimo diremi dirum dormeo drama dromo durum edormio edurum odorum dram

Vowels and 17

June 17, 2011 Leave a comment

Latin Alphabet – the number 17 again

From http://latindiscussion.com/latin/alphabet/history/evolution

“Before the Renaissance, letters J and U had been merely glyph variants of I and V.
W was first used by scribes writing Old English during the 7th century AD.”

CLASSICAL LATIN ALPHABET:

(22) A B C D E F G H I L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z

REMOVE VOWELS:

(5) A E I O V

REMAINING:

(17) B C D F G H L M N P Q R S T X Y Z

f57v

Glyphs on f57v, 3rd ring, Voyn_101 encoding – 4 sets of 17 characters each:

o.e.8.y.?.?.h.p.f.?.k.y.?.?.9.?.?.
o.e.8.y.?.?.h.p.f.?.k.y.?.?.9.?.?.
o.e.8.y.?.?.h.p.f.?.k.y.?.?.9.?.?.
o.e.8.y.?.?.h.p.f.?.k.y.?.?.9.?.?.

compare:
b.c.d.f.g.h.l.m.n.p.q.r.s.t.x.y.z.

(Glyphs marked with “?” are very rare, and occur only on f57v and one other folio.)

Latest Vowel-less Table for Genetic Algorithm results

 

Vowel-less plaintext

June 13, 2011 3 comments

Suppose the VMs words have no vowels, and that a simple alphabetic substitution has been used to create the text from vowel-less plaintext.

I used a Genetic Algorithm to test this hypothesis on some of the naked lady labels in the Balneological section. Using a large Latin dictionary, I stripped out all vowels “aeiou” from the Latin words, giving me a set of vowel-less Latin words. This was then used by the GA to try to find the best 1-1 mapping between VMs glyph and Latin.

Here is a table of the starting statistics. The “Source” is the VMs (in the Voyn_101 encoding), the Target is Latin. The second and fifth columns show the total number of occurrences of each glyph and each Latin letter, respectively, and the following columns show that number as a fraction of the total. The rows are in order of glyph/letter frequency.

There are 16 VMs glyphs, and 22 Latin letters.

16 Voynich nGrams 21 plaintext nGrams
Top 16 1-grams in Voynich and 1-grams in plaintext
Source            Target
------            ------
o    52    0.21311475    s    7666    0.14250925
e    35    0.14344262    r    7450    0.13849385
9    30    0.12295082    t    7053    0.13111371
8    27    0.11065574    n    5706    0.10607328
a    25    0.10245901    c    4386    0.08153477
h    25    0.10245901    m    4340    0.08067964
y    17    0.06967213    l    3707    0.06891231
2    6    0.024590164    p    3079    0.05723793
k    5    0.020491803    d    2790    0.051865485
c    5    0.020491803    b    1725    0.03206737
i    5    0.020491803    v    1424    0.026471846
1    4    0.016393442    f    1372    0.025505178
s    3    0.012295082    g    1347    0.025040433
N    2    0.008196721    q    600    0.0111538675
4    2    0.008196721    h    509    0.009462197
g    1    0.0040983604    x    499    0.0092763

To run the GA, I used a simple weighting function that added the square of the length of every label that was decoded into a valid plaintext word.

Here are the results of one run, where about 50% of the labels (25/53) were converted. First the derived mapping between VMs glyph and Latin consonant:

Voynich: c    1    k    2    y    i    h    s    o    a    4    8    e    N    9    g    
Plain:   l    g    c    p    f    x    v    y        t    q    n    r    d    s    b

Note that the GA has assigned VMs “o” to a null …

Now here are the deciphered labels, with the possible voweled Latin words each may correspond to:

Source  : oeae9
Decipher: rtrs' : oratorius
Source  : oe189
Decipher: rgns' : origines
Source  : oha89
Decipher: vtns
Source  : ohoeo
Decipher: vr' : varia varie ver vera vere veri vero vir viro voro avara
Source  : ohoy9
Decipher: vfs
Source  : ogoy
Decipher: bf
Source  : oeh9
Decipher: rvs' : rivos
Source  : ohaN
Decipher: vtd
Source  : ohay
Decipher: vtf
Source  : oh29
Decipher: vps
Source  : sayae
Decipher: ytftr
Source  : 8ohae
Decipher: nvtr' : invetero
Source  : 8ayoe
Decipher: ntfr
Source  : 8ae89
Decipher: ntrns' : nutriens internus
Source  : 8ae28
Decipher: ntrpn' : interpono
Source  : 8aehay
Decipher: ntrvtf
Source  : 4ohae
Decipher: qvtr
Source  : 8e9
Decipher: nrs' : inrisuo iners
Source  : oy9
Decipher: fs' : fas
Source  : ok9
Decipher: cs' : acies acsi causa causae cuius iaces iocus ocius casa casia cos
Source  : e19
Decipher: rgs' : erigis reges regius rgis rugas regis
Source  : 8ay9
Decipher: ntfs
Source  : 8ae
Decipher: ntr' : antra inter interea intereo intra intro intueor natura naturae nitor nutrio nitori enitor enutrio ianitor notoare
Source  : 8ae89
Decipher: ntrns' : nutriens internus
Source  : 4oko8
Decipher: qcn
Source  : yhae
Decipher: fvtr
Source  : 9hc89
Decipher: svlns
Source  : oeh19
Decipher: rvgs
Source  : oko89
Decipher: cns' : canis canos cinis consui consuo censeo cuneus
Source  : ohay
Decipher: vtf
Source  : ohae
Decipher: vtr' : vetera viatori vitrea veter viator
Source  : ohoe89
Decipher: vrns
Source  : ohaiya89
Decipher: vtxftns
Source  : oh1oy
Decipher: vgf
Source  : oeaiiN
Decipher: rtxxd
Source  : 8oeoe
Decipher: nrr' : narro
Source  : sohoe9
Decipher: yvrs
Source  : oeha
Decipher: rvt
Source  : h9
Decipher: vs' : evasi ovis vasa vias viis vis visa visu vos avus vas visio
Source  : soyoye
Decipher: yffr
Source  : oeoeae
Decipher: rrtr
Source  : oy
Decipher: f' : fio fui f of
Source  : 2chay
Decipher: plvtf
Source  : 989
Decipher: sns' : sanes sanies sanus senis sensa sensi sensu sonas sinus
Source  : ohc89
Decipher: vlns' : valens volans volens vulnus
Source  : eoe9
Decipher: rrs' : rarus ruris rarius
Source  : 8oiiy
Decipher: nxxf
Source  : oe29
Decipher: rps' : repsi
Source  : okc89
Decipher: clns' : colonus
Source  : ehoe
Decipher: rvr' : revera
Source  : ohoe29
Decipher: vrps
Source  : oko89
Decipher: cns' : canis canos cinis consui consuo censeo cuneus
Source  : 82c89
Decipher: nplns