Posts Tagged ‘Latin’

Entropy of the Voynich text

May 26, 2015 23 comments

The Shannon Entropy of a string of text measures the information content of the text. For text that is completely random i.e. where the appearance of any character is as likely as the appearance of any other, the entropy (or “disorder”) is high. For a text which is a long string of identical characters, for example, the entropy is low.

Mathematically, the Shannon Entropy is defined as:

Entropy = –ΣiN probi * Log( probi)

where probi is the frequency of the i’th character in the text, and the sum is over all the characters.

If the Voynich text is randomly created (by whatever means), we’d expect it to have high entropy (i.e. be very disordered). What we in fact find is that the text is ordered, with low Entropy, and is rather more ordered than English, for example. The result of comparing the Voynich text with several other texts in different languages is shown in the table below.

Language Source Entropy
Voynich GC’s Transcription 3.73
French Text from 1367 3.97
Latin Cantus Planus 4.05
Spanish Medina 1543 4.09
German Kochbuch 1553 4.15
English Thomas Hardy 4.21
Early Italian Divine Comedy 1300 4.23
None Random characters 6.01

The last entry in the table shows the Entropy for a random text – and is getting on for double the Entropy of the Voynich.


How was the Voynich Manuscript text written?

August 23, 2012 7 comments

I’ve spent many happy hours poring over the text, and am convinced that it is not as “simple” as it appears (i.e. the “words” are not words at all). Here are some conjectures:

  1. The lines look like they are written left to right i.e. the glyphs were written down from left to right, but were not.
  2. The scribe started with the drawing and started writing glyphs at various positions on the page.
  3. The method used for choosing each glyph and for deciding its position involved a mechanical apparatus, perhaps a set of co-rotating cipher wheels that were used to convert each character in the Latin plaintext into a VMs glyph and page position
  4. The apparatus is set to a new starting position for each folio/page (so e.g. Bettony labels on the three folios the plant appears on are different)
  5.  The density of ink is a clue to the order in which the glyphs were written (nib/quill freshly dipped and full of ink, or almost dry)
  6. At some point the scribe finishes writing the needed glyphs, and then fills out the spaces with pseudo-random words.
  7. There is no punctuation because what is seen are not words. What is seen makes no grammatical sense because the glyphs are not ordered and positioned linearly across the page.
  8. Perhaps the secret to unwinding the cipher is in the labels. The labels on one page are constrained to have been produced by the same initial position of the cipher apparatus, and they must come from the plaintext label.

There are so many clues as to what is going on, yet putting them all together is hugely challenging

For example, Jim Reeds suggested years ago that the order in which the text had been written on the sunflower page, f33v:


was first the text to the left of the left stalk, second the text in between the stalks, and finally the text to the right of the last stalk. This is compelling, since the ink density looks different, and the lines don’t line up well across the stalks. It becomes clearer if you saturate the image:

f33v Saturated

And in that image, what jumps out are the glyphs that are darker than the others. Those can be seen more clearly in black/white:

f33v monochrome drop

where the “o”, “y”, “8”, “e” stick out like sore thumbs. Most of those are in the left section, some in the middle, and fewer in the right. Why are these glyphs bolder, why are they inked more heavily? Were these the glyphs initially placed on the page, and contain the real information, and the rest, unimportant and pseudo-random, were all added later to make the text look “normal”?

Categories: 8, ay, Characters, e, f33v, Features, Jim Reeds, Latin, o, oy, Theories, Writing, y Tags: , ,

Frequency Distributions for Phonetic Codes

June 12, 2012 1 comment

Knox took the time to plot the frequency distributions from this post, where I looked at the theory that the VMs words are phonetic codes. Here are his results:

Where not included in the title, comparisons are to the Herbal Sections. VMs is in blue-black.

Comparison of phonetic code frequencies between VMs sections and various known texts.

With only 40 words to translate, there cannot be a meaningful series but it would be interesting to see the actual words in position, anyway. If this only shows the power of Genetic Algorithms to match something regardless of significance, why does the old Latin Herbal make the best matches to the Herbal and Astrological sections?

f75r cures, pregnancy, life and death – Latin Plainchant

May 15, 2012 3 comments

Here is a result obtained using a Genetic Algorithm to match the text on f75r to Latin. The training corpus I used was a large file of Latin plainchant (the idea being that repeated “words” in the VMs show similarities to chant).

First, here is the folio with the translated words overlain in red:

Folio f75r decrypted as Latin plainchant

The genetic algorithm searched for a set of glyphs that each matched to a pair of Latin letters.

Most of the decrypted words are valid Latin and match words in the plaintext I used to train the GA. Some are Latin but do not appear in the plaintext. The other, invalid, words could be caused by errors in the pair matching.

Or the whole thing could well be nonsense! This is likely – I asked Joel Stevens to translate some of the Latin, and here is what he said:

On first inspection, it seems to be random non-sense. For example:
recita lugete vena dans veta ia debent lustrata lite

Would mean: Recite! Mourn! Blood-vessel giving. Forbid! Oh, they owe things that were purified by the lawsuit.

I’m not really sure how to make sense of it. I don’t see anything that stands out as an obvious sentence. Maybe some words are filler and need to be dropped… or maybe there is a hidden order that needs to be found (assuming these are the correct words).

Here is the Latin:

piraextita recita' lugete' idpirata lucrte vena'
dans' veta' ia' debent' lustrata' vanagete vamirata lite'
lugens' esnt levata' nuta' gens' veanta rochum' nogete le 
dato' uascie excita' curi gent na veta' le veta' luedicta 
veexti vata' arta' te' chum no' no' amicta' luedet luga' 
mori' edente' noga date' reri' lugens' feta' luedicta luga' 
morata' luaena uechum vana' lugete' ad' nt vana' luga'
pate vata' lugertta audita' lugens' vita' curata' resona'
lupina' feta' lumina' lugeum veon lugete' no' vana' lant 
aule lucrte ista' veta' lugens' vita' na ruri' mena' strata' 
luedicta lugens' nota' luedicta na lugent' reti' vena' date' vageas 
dedita' lugent' nota' veta' te' no' iret' veta' na no' vena' luga' 
morata' edicta' lumina' lumina' lumina' lumina' lugens' novena' 
lace' si' educta' lugens' na novena' lugens' vita' lugens' ruti' sita' 
lans' lugens' luuacinota lacium vana' pant' le vena' reista luga' 
aurata' lugete' verata nt ha' urgens' ad' revena lugens' vana'
morati' vemota curatita dant' bunt' id' ncnt vena' lugeas 
pant' vesata lunt vena' lunt ruchum este' late' nota' 
luaerata lunt veta' luga' veta' ulta' lugens' ti 
iu' veta' lute vata' stri sschum veta' lumicium 
clrechum vata' poma' le sebete no' te' ut' 
sati' veta' lugens' vana' le acta' gete vana' tute' 
mori' aeri' luedet lugent' deri lunt vana' lugeas 
lugens' no' edet' luuatita lans' vato te' no' 
lans' orta' luedicta id' na luedicta strata' tuas' 
dans' no' veno dans' no' luia' date' muta' 
gnsiurte duno' luca' alti' vena' resina' date' ruti' rurata na sunt' 
errata' morata' luedet pant' no' dace' veto' lunt nt amicta' luedicta strata' 
dans' fisi' na uachns no' recina lunt dans' novata' luedicta vana' lucrum' 
lu' dans' irquta lumita lugens' vaga' lugent' dans' vana' resino vena' reti' nodo' 
aurata' lumita vita' lugete' vena' vata' lumini' lumina' dant' na 
locuta' dant' vena' lugens' date' pena' vena' lugete' vena' usta' 
luedet nt vena' lunt vana' lugens' ferata rorata' dalias 
pr' nomina' resi date' ruta reti' ruti' no' gens' nomina' 
lugens' ambita' lugens' date' date' vena' lugens' nona' 
pant' mirata luedicta luncta' reti' ruti' date' date' na 
lumina' na ambita' lumina' luedicta lumiista nt 
lumirata luedicta lumina' lumina' lumirata usta' 
serata' luedicta lumirata noedicta ruri' ncusta 
date' vena' lugens' vena' dant' edicta' te' vena' 
paedicta luedicta rucina luga' na edicta' ma 
aurata' lumina' luedicta luiget luigicta date' 
serata' vagete nona' lugens' fiti ruti' nona' 
sprata lans' rerata lumina' rurata renona ruti' ruut nochns ha' date' na 
derata orta' lumita rerata lalint ruta rurata lumena rurata rechns 
lumita lumina' veno lumina' dans' vena' eg plnt vana' noti' 

Candidate Carrots and Castor Oil

March 26, 2010 7 comments

Here is a set of plausible coincidences, or strong evidence (depending on how gullible you are) that VMs words beginning “ok-” are enciphered from Latin words beginning “ca-“.

Evidence 1: Acorus Calamus – Sweet Flag

In my last post I referred to several labels in the VMs that appear on different folios. In particular,  “okoe89”, “okae89” and “okae9”. The question was “what do they all have in common?”. Two of the three “okae9” labeled objects are roots with distinctive shapes, strongly suggestive of “Acorus Calamus” (Sweet Flag):

Conjecture: “okae9” = “Calamus”

Evidence 2: Carrots

The three “okae89” labeled plants show similarities. The one on f101v2 looks very much like a carrot, and the other two could also be carrots:

Conjecture: “okae89” = “Carota”

Evidence 3: Castillum

And what about the third label “okoe89”? There are five objects labeled by this word. Three look like plants/roots, one is some sort of funnel (from the balneological pages) and the fifth is obviously a castle:

Castle in the Rosettes folios

Conjecture: “okoe89” = “Castellum”

From this evidence, a simple conclusion is that the prefix “ok” enciphers the Latin prefix “ca”.

Evidence 4: Castor and Pollux

If the “ok” prefix is enciphering “ca”, then we can search for labels beginning with “ok” and see whether there are any obvious matches to the labeled objects with words beginning “ca”. It turns out that there are.

On f68r3, which is popularly supposed to show the Pleiades star cluster, one of the map segments has a pair of stars labeled “okoy9” and “ohos”. These seem likely to be the famous pair Castor and Pollux. Moreover, in the opposite segment is a group of four stars, one of which also has the “ok” prefix, and is labeled “ok98*”. This is possibly the Behenian star Capella in the constellation of Auriga. (Note: if this is indeed the Auriga constellation, then one of the other stars should be “Alnath”. The star next to the Pleiades is supposed to be Aldabaran, and is enciphered as “81oe8a9”. The star next to Capella is labelled “8ayaee” – perhaps this is Alnath, and the VMs prefix “8-” encodes “al-“?)

Conjecture: “okoy9” = “Castor”, “ok98*” = “Capella”

Castor, Pollux, Capella and the Pleiades

Evidence 5: Castor Oil

Following on from the identification of Castor and Pollux on f68r3, we look for other instances of “okoy9” i.e. “Castor” and find one labeling a plant on f88v. The leaf of this plant looks very similar to that of the Castor Oil plant:


VMs Word Latin Word VMs Prefix Latin Prefix VMs Postfix Latin Postfix
okae9 calamus ok ca ae9 lamus
okae89 carota ok ca ae89 rota
okoe89 castellum ok ca oe89 stellum
okoy9 castor ok ca oy9 stor
ok98* capella ok ca 98* pella

Genetic Algorithm

February 26, 2010 Leave a comment

Basic Idea

In the plaintext, convert each group of 1, 2, 3 or 4 characters into a Voynich group of 1,2,3 or 4 characters. We call this a “mapping”. For example, when creating Voynich from Latin, a cipher mapping might be:

e => o, i => 9, …

er => 4o, is => ok, ti => 8a, …

ent => 9k, ant => A, …

… and so on. This can be encoded into an algorithm thus which maps strings in “repl” to strings in “seek”. For example:

	String seek[] = {"4ok1",
			 "1o", "oe", "oh", "4o", "ok", "8a", "89", "am", "1c", "oy", "o8", "co", "ay",
			 "k1", "h1", "19", "hc", "c9", "ha", "ae", "79", "2o", "cc", "ko", "ho", "c8", "9h",
			 "9k", "c7", "2c", "ka", "kc", "1a", "an", "h9", "o,", "e8", "k9", "ap", "8o", "e,",
			 ",1", "7a", "81",
			 "o",  "9",  "1",  "a",  "8",  "c",  "h",  "e",  "k",  "y",  "4",  "m",  ",",
			 "2",  "7",  "s",  "K",  "C",  "p",  "g",  "n",  "H",  "j",  "A"};

	String repl[] = {"un",
			 "ri", "on", "f",  "es", "g",  "em", "de", "se", "co", "ne", "ur", "si", "ic", "ui", "me",
			 "ere","eb", "la", "ma", "le", "id", "bu", "nti","no", "cu", "eba","qui","ie", "al", "ul",
			 "c",  "d",  "l",  "er", "is", "ti", "nt", "en", "re", "in", "um", "am", "us",
			 "te", "it", "v",  "tu", "ta", "ra", "di", "an", "ni", "li", "et", "ba", "ae", "mi",
			 "ent","st", "h",  "nd", "ci", "pe", "im", "ua", "io", "tur","il", "ve", "iu", "as",
			 "vi", "ita","ca",
			 "e",  "i",  "a",  "t",  "u",  "s",  "r",  "n",  "m",  "o",  "p",  "b", "q",
			 "qu", "at", "or", "ia", "ar", "ce", "ib", "ec", "ab", "ru", "ant"};

Such an algorithm is used inside a Chromosome of the Genetic Algorithm. The Chromosome decodes Voynich into Latin by  matching character groups in the Voynich word against each of the strings in the “seek” list in turn. If a match occurs, then the  Voynich group is translated into the Latin group in the “repl” list at the same position. Thus “4ok1” in Voynich is translated into “un” in Latin.

Once the Voynich word has been translated into Latin, the Latin word is looked up in a Latin dictionary. If the word is found, then the “cost” (or “quality”) of the Chromosome is increased … if the word is not found, then the cost is decreased. After all words in the Voynich text have been converted to Latin, and the aggregate cost of the Chromosome evaluated, it can be judged whether the mapping “seek” to “repl” is a good one or not.

Generating the Chromosome Population

We generate a large number of Chromosomes, each of which has a different, randomised, “seek” to “repl” mapping. We do this by simply shuffling the order of the “repl” strings in each Chromosome.

Thus, one Chromosome may map “4ok1” to “s” and another may map it to “qui”.

This population of Chromosomes is then evaluated: each Chromosome converts the Voynich words to Latin, and each then gets a cost. The higher the cost, the better. The highest possible cost would be a Chromosome that had a seek-repl mapping that produced a valid Latin word for each Voynich word.

Training the Chromosomes

The Chromosomes are ordered in decreasing cost, and then the best of them (i.e. at the top of the list) are “mated” together to produce offspring Chromosomes. The mating process essentially involves taking sequences of the “repl” strings from both parents and combining them to form a new “repl” string.

Some of the offspring Chromosomes are then “mutated”. This involves replacing one of the “repl” strings with some randomly selected letters from the Latin character set.

The process repeats (ordering the Chromosomes, mating the best ones, mutating the offspring) until a predefined cost value is reached, or the population of Chromosomes refuses to improve itself.

In the end, the best, trained Chromosome will contain the optimal arrangement of “seek” to “repl” mappings for conversion of Voynich to Latin.

The same procedure can be used for a Voynich to English, to German, French or any other language, provided that a dictionary and substantial texts are available to process.

First Results – Voynich to Latin

This is a limited attack on the first five “sentences” of f1r, using 200 chromosomes and a Latin dictionary of around 15,000 words. The best chromosome scores 9.4 after 500 training epochs (cf a score of 20 for a one-to-one translation of Latin into Latin).

Here are the deciphered sentences:

1) Voynich: fa19s 9hae ay Akam 2oe !oy9 ²scs 9 hoy 2oe89 soy9 Hay oy9 hacy 1kam 2ay Ais Kay Kay 8aN s9aIy 2ch9 oy 9ham +o8 Koay9 Kcs 8ayam s9 8om okcc9 okcoy yoeok9 ?Aay 8am oham oy ohaN saz9 1cay Kam Jay Fam 98ayai29

Latin: ?ereieas vias is asasita meas ?ereis ?astuas is quinti mensis asereis vis ereis sttunti viasita viis as?as alis alis qui? asisere? nti quere ere viis ?ita alamisis altuas ereis asis quiita quantis querenti ntiviquis ?asis qui amita ere am? asere?is viis alis ?is ?is isereere?viis

Voynich Herbs

February 26, 2010 1 comment

Edith Sherwood has a web site where she details compelling possible identifications for the plants depicted in the “herbal” pages of the VM.

Dana Scott’s page also has plausible identifications for the plants.

As has often been pointed out, if we look at the first Voynich “word” that appears on each page of the herbal part of the VM, we find that those words are unique, or appear elsewhere very rarely. It thus seems reasonable that the words may be the names of the plants depicted.

The GA was set up to find a set of n-Gram mappings that would convert a list of 111 Voynich first herbal words into Latin/English or Spanish. For this, dictionaries of Latin, English and Spanish herb/plant names were used.

The GA sought a mapping that would convert all the Voynich words for herbs/plants into as many valid plaintext (Spanish, English, Latin) words as possible. The best result was for a mixed English/Latin dictionary (see table): 31 of the 111 Voynich words were converted, about 30% success rate.

(One should never expect 100% success, due to missing names in the dictionary, transcription errors, missing n-Grams, incomplete n-Grams etc..)

The results are shown below in tabular form, together with Dana Scott’s and Edith Sherwood’s identification. The first column shows the folio in the VM, the second shows the first Voynich word on that folio. For the GA identification columns (3 and 4) the Voynich mapped word is shown, in quotation marks if not found in the associated dictionary, and in bold if found in the dictionary.

Note that, probably unsurprisingly, nowhere do the IDs from the GA in Spanish, English/Latin and Scott/Sherwood, agree! NOT YET, anyway 🙂

(What amuses me about about this mapping technique is that it tends to produce words that sound plausible in the target language. E.g. for f4r the Latin/English word “paptise” sounds like a valid word.)

Folio Voynich 1st Word Candidate GA ID, Spanish Candidate GA ID, Latin/Engish Dana Scott ID, English Dana Scott ID, Latin Sherwood ID, Latin Sherwood ID, English
f1r fa19s costa “greica”
f1v h1s9 rabo geum Deadly Nightshade Atropa belladonna Hyoscyamus niger Solanum nigrum Solanum dulcamara Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade
f2r h98an9 “jzba” “ariapha” Cornflower Centaurea cyanus Centaurea diffusa Diffuse Knapweed
f2v hoom “meic” “padi” Water Lily Nymphaea candida Nymphoides Nymphoides
f3r k2cos chinita (Impatiens) arnica Celosia argentea Feathery amaranth
f3v hoam menta (mint) paris Helleborus foetidus Dungwort
f4r ho8ae19 “mezirn” “paptise” Saxifraga cespitosa Alpine Saxifrage
f4v j1oom pastora (Poinsettia) “oigle” Campanula rapunculus Rampion
f5r h2o89 “piyn” “hicse” Arnica montana Wolfs Bane
f5v hA1coy malanga (Malanga) cirsium Tennis Racket Plant Agrimonia eupatoria Malva sylvestris Mallow
f6r foay “oote” “erk” Acanthus mollis Bear Breeches
f6v hoay9say1Chay “meotendoteisedh” “pakpikrtsst” Eryngium maritimum Sea Holly
f7r f1o8am “saynta” acris Trientalis europea Starflower
f7v joe29 “rden” anise Myrica gale Bog Myrtle
f8r g2oe “dno” “miv” Pisum sativum Green Pea
f8v Ko8 “anop” “amot” Symphytum officinale Comfrey
f9r k98eo “uardna” “cernur” Ricinus communis Casteroil
f9v fo1oy “oveh” “erut” Heartsease, Wild Pansy Viola tricolor Violaceae Viola
f10r g1oK9 “pohon” “apryse” Cichorium pumilum Chicory Endive
f10v gam tora (Tora Tree) gale Linnaea borealis Twinflower
f11r k2oe chino (Chinese Hat Plant) “arv” Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary
f11v goe81o89 “albaveaca” “maadud” Curcuma longa Turmeric
f13r koy3oy “lenga” “mdoium” Banana Banana
f13v hoaiy “memh” “paft” Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckles Woodbines
f14r g1o8am “poynta” “apcris” Scorzonera Black Salsify Vipers Grass
f14v g891om “uomic” “gesdi” Stachys monnieri Wood Betony Heal-all Sel-heal Woundwort
f15r k2oy “chiga” “arium” Sonchus oleraceus Sow Thistles
f15v gayoy “t8h” “gabt” Paris quadrifolia Herb Paris
f16r go1co89 “alblanyn” “marscse” Cannabis Cannabis
f16v g1yAm “potoora” “aptule” Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum
f17r f2o89 “hayn” “ulcse” Catananche caerulea Cupids Dart
f17v g1o8oe “poyno” “apcv” Dioscorea Yams
f18r g8yaz89 “ullngn” “gmeagse” Aster alpinus Aster
f18v koe8 la (?) mad Telfairia Fluted pumpkin
f19r g1oy “poga” apium Polemonium coeruleum Greek Valerian
f19v go1am “albbora” mantle Draba nivalis Nailwort
f20r h81o89 “caveaca” woud Astragalus hypoglottis Milk vetch
f20v faIsay “crrote” greek Cynara cardunculus Cardoon
f21r g1oy “poga” apium Anagallis arvensis Pimpernel
f21v koe829 “laol” “madpe” Dictamnus albus Burning bush False Dittany White Dittany Gas Plant
f22r goe “albv” “maus” Verbena officinalis Common Vervain Holy Herb
f22v g9samoy “..dah” “hnshot” Tulip Tulip
f23r g9818op “.fhilo” “hsthlo” Pulsatilla vulgaris Pasque flower
f23v go8azoe “albzucv” “mapacus” Borago officinalis Borage Star Flower
f24r goyoy9 “alb..” “maby” Cucumis sativus Cucumber
f24v k1o8ay coyote (wild) rock Ficus religiosa Sacred Fig Bo Tree
f25r f1oe89 “sanoaca” “avd” Wild Thyme
f25v goCam “albcuora” “malile” Isatis tinctoria Woad
f26r g%coh9 “spnij” lunaria Prunella vulgaris Self heal
f26v g1c8ay pochote (Pochote) “apgok” Lens culinaris Lentil
f27r hsoy manga (Mango) “veium” Spinacia oleracea Spinach
f27v fo1ou oveja (?) eruca French Marigold Tagetes patula Dianthus superbus Dianthus
f28r g1o8ay “poyote” “apck” Aristolochia Smearwort Birthwort Pipevine
f28v h2oe pino (Pine) “hiv” Dahlia Dahlia imperialis Rhododendrons Rhododendrons
f29r gosam “alb.ora” “mansle” Lactuva sativa longifolia Romaine Cos Lettuce
f29v hoom “meic” “padi” Nigella sativa Roman coriander
f30r oh1cs9 “elanbo” “inrsum” Prunella vulgaris Healall
f30v Ks1an rubia (Madder) montana Cuscuta europaea Dodder
f31r hcc8c9 lichi (Lychee) “rgoio” Erigeron acris Fleabane
f31v go8az “albzon” “mapnn” Fernleaf yarrow Achillea filipendulina Valerian Valerian
f32r f1am santa (?) “aris” Veronica triphyllos Speedwell
f32v h1co8am “ranizora” “genple” Campanula rotundifolia Harebell
f33r k28ay “chizh” “arpt” Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion
f33v kayay “qllh” “opmet” Masterwort Astrantia major Tanacetum parthenium Feverfew
f34r g1cocj19 “ponianos” “apnbie” Anemone hortensis
f34v hs189 “mansn” “vewse” Lunaria annua Honesty Money Plant
f35r Koo anona (Custard Apple) amur Cichorium intybus Radicchio
f35v gay1oy “trtga” galium Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant
f36r j1af8aN “pa.nzti” “onupfl” Delphinium staphisagria Delphinium
f36v g1ayos9 “pooteesn” “apksise” Lamium amplexicaule Henbit
f37r koGoe “luiv” malus Mentha longifolia Mint
f37v h2o89 “piyn” “hicse” fedtschenkoi englerii Emilia fosbergii Tassel flower
f38r koeoy “lilh” “mmut”
f38v oh1oj “eveet” inula Euphorbia myrsinites Myrtle Spurge
f39r kc7o128 “goguadp” “gienmpot”
f39v g7aiy “inmh” “naft”
f40r g1c9 “poi” apio Erodium malacoides Storks bill
f40v j1c7an “pagmo” “oospo” Epiphyllum oxypetalum Crocus vernus Crocus
f41r j2c9hc8aecc9 “roilizrii” “ediorpcuio” Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram
f41v hcSo8ae “lirbzv” “riupus” Coriandrum sativum Coriander Cilantro
f42r 2o “ah” st
f42v k1o˛ cola (?) rosa Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine Culverwort
f43r kayo8am “q.zora” “opbple” Stellaria media Chickweed
f43v g8saiy9 “u.lbn” “gnsicse” Elytrigia repens Couch grass
f44r k2o8g9 “chiy.” arch Mandragora officinarum Mandrake
f44v k2o china (Impatiens) “arur” Apium graveolens Celery
f45r g9h98ae “.jzv” “hariapus” Atriplex hortensis Orach Saltbush
f45v hosay9 “me..” pansy Lavandula angustifolia Lavender
f46r g1coJ9 “ponitr” “apnta” Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy
f46v jo79e3c7 “rimvig” “andretos” Tanacetum parthenium, Chrysanthemum parthenium Inula conyza Ploughmans Spikenard Great Fleabane
f47r g1aiy “pomh” “apft” Lady’s Mantle, Lion’s Foot Alchemilla vulgaris Rosaceae Sempervivum tectorum Houseleek
f47v g2cok “dnier” minor Arnica montana Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort
f48r g28am “dzora” “miple” Adonis Vernalis False Hellebore
f48v g1co819 “ponifn” “apnsse” Ruta graveolens Rue Herb of Grace
f49r gA2oe “ceahv” costus Nymphaea caerulea Blue Nile Lotus
f49v g he wort
f50r g2coy “dnih” mint Astrantia major Masterwort
f50v k19 con (?) rose Telopea speciosissima Gentiana frigida Stiff Gentain
f51r k2oe819 “chinofn” “arvsse” Cakile maritima Searocket
f51v go2o89 albahaca (Basil) “mastd” Salva officinalis Sage
f52r k8oh1F9 “queacn” “toinnise” Anemone coronaria Poppy Anemone
f52v g1oy “poga” apium Polystichum setiferum Fern
f53r hA8ap “mazlo” “ciplo” Achillea Ptarmica Sneezewort
f53v k2oy3c9 “chigamin” “ariumocse” Hieracium aurantiacum Hawkweed
f54r go8am “albzora” maple Cirsium oleraceum Cabbage thistle
f54v g1co8ay “ponizh” “apnpt” Bittersweet Nightshade Solanum dulcamara Perovskia atriplicifolia Russian Sage
f55r go8am “albzora” maple Fumaria officinalis Fumitory
f55v h1C8189 “raecsn” “geriwse” Forest lily Veltheima bracteata Broccoli Broccoli
f56r ok1ae “tebv” “trntus” Drosera Sundews
f56v h1cok “ranier” “genor” Cycas revoluta Sago Palm
f57r joccoHc9 “riopei” “anomiaio” Sherardia arvemsis Blue Field Madder
f65r Alchemilla vulgaris Ladies Mantle
f65v Centaurea cyanus Cornflower
f66v Satureja montana Winter Savory
f87r Satureja hortensis Summer Savory
f87v Senecio Primula vulgaris Primrose
f87v Kleinia Pedicularis flammea Lousewort Wood Bettony
f89v Actaea spicata Baneberry
f90r Conyza bonariensis Fleabane
f90v Eruca vesicaria Arugula Rocket
f93r Cynara cardunculus Artichoke
f93v Lupinus Lupin
f94r Botrychium lunaria Botrychium lunaria Moonwort Moonfern
f94v Agrostemma Githago Corncockle Red Campion
f94v Glycyrrhiza glabra Liquorice
f94v Plantago lanceolata Ribwort Plantain Kemps
f95r Berberis Sambucus nigra Elderberry
f95v Althaea Rosea Hollyhock
f96r Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica
f96v Tamus communis Black Bryony